Fouskas, Theodoros (Ed.). Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: A. An International Handbook on Migration and Refugee Studies, Management Policies and Governance (Foreword by Giovanna Campani)

Fouskas, Theodoros (Ed.) (2021). Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: A. An International Handbook on Migration and Refugee Studies, Management Policies and Governance (Foreword by Giovanna Campani), European Public Law Series / Bibliothèque de Droit Public Euro­péen, vol. CXXIV, European Public Law Organization (EPLO), Athens, 860 pp., 2021, ISSN: 2308-8648, ISBN: 978-618-5417-10-9 (SET), ISBN: 978-618-5417-11-6 (A)


Global governance is particularly concerned about migration and asylum issues. Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: A. An International Handbook on Migration and Refugee Studies, Management Policies and Governance offers a comprehensive and cutting-edge analysis of international migration and asylum research and studies under multi-disciplinary approaches. The contributors are leading scholars, academics and researchers, practitioners, policymakers and experts in the field of Immigration and Refugee Studies, who provide understandings on issues and direct their focus to future key issues in national and global governance, research and policy. The Handbook is structured into six central sectors:

  • Theoretical approaches and contextualisation of migration and asylum issues.
  • Migration and refugee reception, border and management policies and governance.
  • Migrant and refugee experiences, forced migration and displacement, precarity and vulnerability.
  • Irregular migration and migrant smuggling.
  • Human rights, social justice and discrimination.
  • Collectivities and solidarity.

The Handbook addresses a global challenge: how to interpret and manage the flows of refugees and different types of migrants, safeguard their access to and protection of their rights and address issues of migrant and refugee integration policy. This innovative Handbook responds to the need for a better understanding of migration and asylum, utilising contemporary information from a broad range of disciplines. Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: A. An International Handbook on Migration and Refugee Studies, Management Policies and Governance provides an overview on the different aspects worldwide, being a useful source for novice but also experienced readers, students and professionals working on migration and asylum.


Editor and Contributors


Giovanna Campani, Foreword

1. Theodoros Fouskas, Introduction: Seeking Hope and Safety in the midst of Multiple Global Crises                   

Chapter I – Theoretical Approaches and Contextualisation of Migration and Asylum Issues

2. Saskia Sassen, A Massive Loss of Habitat: New Drivers for Migration

3. Bridget Anderson, “Let Language Not Betray Us”: The Mediterranean and Modern Slavery

4. Giovanna Campani / Zoran Lapov, Migration Crisis, Refugee Crisis, European Crisis

5. Hannah Cross, Europe’s Migration Regime: Why a Radical Approach is Necessary and Possible

6. Alex Sager, The Uses and Abuses of “Migrant Crisis”

7. Karijn Nijhoff, Footloose, Nomadic, Drifting, or Liquid: The Marginal Man in 2015      

8. Thomas Nail, A Tale of Two Crises: Migration and Terrorism after the Paris Attacks       

Chapter II – Migration and Refugee Reception, Border and Management Policies and Governance

9. Christopher Kyriakides / Arthur McLuhan / Karen Anderson / Lubna Bajjali / Noheir Elgendy, Building Trust in the Third Space of Refugee Reception

10. Alessio D’Angelo, Refugees’ Reception in Italy: Past and Present of a Humanitarian Crisis                   

11. Polly Pallister-Wilkins / Julia Smeekes, The Dutch Border Security Team in Chios and the Intensification, Diversification and Deepening of Border Policing

12. Yarin Eski, Policing Stowaways: Realities and Attitudes of Frontline Port Police Officers, Customs Officers and Security Officers

13. Chiara Marchetti / Michela Franceschelli, Social Integration or Emergency? The Italian Reception System for Migrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees

14. Ana López-Sala / Dirk Godenau, Non-state Actors and the Outsourcing of Migration Control in Spain

15. Grant Mitchell, Reforming Immigration Detention? Sustaining Progressive Change in Immigration Detention Law and Practice

16. Bernd Parusel, Sweden’s Response to the Refugee Crisis in 2015: A Failing “Humanitarian Superpower”?

17. Anna Mratschkowski / Juliana Witkowski, Dynamics of Asylum- and Refugee-related Cooperation Networks in Mediterranean Countries

18. Vassilis Hatzopoulos / Mary Anagnou, The “Dublin System”: Crisis-responsive, Crisis-resistant

or in Perpetual Crisis?

Chapter III – Migrant and Refugee Experiences: Forced Migration and Displacement, Precarity and Vulnerability 

19. Leisy J. Abrego, Central American Refugees to the United States from the 1980s to the Present

20. Assaf Dahdah / Kamel Doraï, Camps vs. Self-settled Refugees? A Comparative Analysis of Syrian Refugees’ Settlement in Jordan and Lebanon

21. Georgios O. Tsobanoglou / Ioanna Giannopoulou, Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Greece

22. Bianca Gonzalez-Sobrino, Citizens or Immigrants: The Case of Puerto Ricans during the Times of Crisis       

23. Patricia Landolt, Immigration, Precarious Non-citizenship, and the Changing Landscape of Work

24. Ayman Zohry, Migrants and Refugees in Times of Crisis: The Case of Egypt    

25. Brenda Araceli Bustos García / María Luisa Martínez Sánchez, Disability in Necropolitical Contexts: Experiences of Migrants in Mexico

26. Manos Spyridakis / Michalis Christodoulou / Eleni Giannakopoulou, Intergenerational Transformations of Vulnerability: Life Trajectories of Albanian Migrants in Athens

Chapter IV – Irregular Migration and Migrant Smuggling

27. Peter O’Brien, Irregular Migration in Europe: Inclusive Exclusion

28. Gabriella Sanchez, Coyotes, Migrants, Terrorists and Narcos: Migrant Smuggling Narratives on the US-Mexico Border and the Data that Counters Them

Chapter V – Human Rights, Social Justice and Discrimination

29. Vanessa Stout, ‘In the Streets Where I Live’ – The Nigerian Experience with Racism and Discrimination in Dublin’s Cityspace

30. Maria João Guia / May-Len Skilbrei, Justice Gaps for Female Migrants

31. Henry Lee Allen, Social Justice, Police Shootings, and Abusive Social Encounters with Unarmed African Americans

Chapter VI – Collectivities and Solidarity

32. Aziz Choudry† / Mostafa Henaway / Manuel Salamanca Cardona, Organizing Migrant and Immigrant Workers in Quebec

33. Sotiris Chtouris / DeMond S. Miller, Pity, Justice, or Solidarity in the Light of the Current Refugee Crisis     

34. Theodoros Fouskas, Solidarity versus Hostility: Pro-migrant and Anti-migrant Citizen Mobilizations in Greece since 2015


Fouskas, Theodoros (Ed.). Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: B. An International Handbook on Migration, Asylum, Social Integration and Exclusion (Foreword by Marco Martiniello)

Fouskas, Theodoros (Ed.). (2021). Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: B. An International Handbook on Migration, Asylum, Social Integration and Exclusion (Foreword by Marco Martiniello), European Public Law Series / Bibliothèque de Droit Public Européen, vol. CXXV, European Public Law Organization (EPLO), Athens, 812 pp., 2021, ISSN: 2308-8648, ISBN: 978-618-5417-10-9 (SET), ISBN: 978-618-5417-12-3 (B)


Prompted by economic uncertainties, socio-political instabilities, wars, persecutions or environmental changes, migrants seek refuge, safety and hope via perilous routes and journeys. Beyond responses to crises there is an important aspect of migration, especially in a long-term perspective, that requires sustainable, long-lasting solutions: the social integration of immigrants and refugees. Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: B. An International Handbook on Migration, Asylum, Social Integration and Exclusion offers a distinctively global, intersectional and multi-disciplinary approach to migration, gender, social class, race and ethnicity, awareness-raising and empowerment and an analysis of challenges regarding immigrant and refugee integration and social exclusion from domains of integration. Lack of employment, education, housing, access to services, healthcare and social interaction leads to isolation, marginalisation and social exclusion of immigrants and refugees from many aspects of life. Scholars from North America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania in the field of Immigration and Refugee Studies from a broad range of disciplines, provide understandings on key issues of international migration and immigrant and refugee inclusion in reception societies. They delve into institutional and everyday practices of migrant and refugee rights as well as opportunities and life chances in order to shed light on necessary background knowledge and tools to chart current and future trends in research on migration and integration policy, inclusion at local level, and national and global migration governance. The Handbook is structured into seven central sectors:

  • Approaches to migration policy, social integration and exclusion.
  • Labour market, exploitation and precarious work.
  • Religious and racial boundaries, racism and nationalism.
  • Media discourse on migration and the coverage of the “migrant and refugee crisis”.
  • Access to education.
  • Ηousing, welfare, gender and family.
  • Health care and mental health support.

The Handbook responds to the need for a better understanding of the contrasting differences across experiences in integration domains such as employment, housing, education, social welfare, healthcare, intercultural coexistence and issues that significantly inhibit or enhance integration. Immigrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crises: B. An International Handbook on Migration, Asylum, Social Integration and Exclusion provides a range of perspectives and insights into central topics and debates in the field of social integration. It is a definitive publication and a useful source for academics, students and researchers across social and political sciences, human rights and other disciplines, policymakers and professionals working on migration and asylum.


Editor and Contributors


Marco Martiniello, Foreword

1. Theodoros Fouskas, Introduction: From Reception to Integration of Migrants and Refugees?

Chapter I – Approaches to Migration Policy, Social Integration and Exclusion

2. Uma A. Segal, On the Integration of Immigrants and Refugees: A Contemporary Commentary

3. Melissa Phillips, Cautionary Tales from the Geographic South: The Impact of Australia’s ‘Worst-Practice’ on International Policy-making towards Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Times of Crisis

4. Edoardo Bressanelli / Stella Gianfreda, From EU Citizens to EU Migrants: Mapping the Changing Status of EU Nationals in post-Brexit Britain

5. Dionyssis Balourdos / Maria Petraki, Immigrant Multidimensional Poverty in Europe

6. Stefanos Spaneas / Agamemnonas Zachariades / Despina Cochliou, Cyprus Assisted Voluntary Return Programme: Developing a Sustainable Pre-Departure Policy

7. Paraskevi Naskou-Perraki / Christos Baxevanis, EU’s Response to Refugee Crisis: The EU-Turkey Statement

8. Antonis Kontis, The Migration Policy of Greece

Chapter IΙ – Labour Market, Exploitation and Precarious Work

9. Valerie Preston / Brian Ray, Gender, Race, and Second Generation Labor Market Outcomes in Toronto, Canada

10. Sona Kalantaryan, Labour Market Integration of Humanitarian Migrants during the Economic Downturn

11. Amanda De Lisio, On Sex in the City of God

12. Robert Westermann, Local Governance of Super-Diversity – The Role of Occupational Orientation

13. Jenna Hennebry / Janet McLaughlin / Anelyse M. Weiler, Fresh Food, Stale Schemes: Comparing Agricultural Labour Migration in Canada and Spain

14. Silvia Giulini / Sebene Eshete, The Life of Migrant Agricultural Workers in Nea Manolada and Filiatra

15. Iris Polyzou, Aspects of Immigrant Commerce in the Centre of Athens: Geographies and Practices in the Establishment of a Business

Chapter ΙΙΙ – Religious and Racial Boundaries, Racism and Nationalism

16. Nancy Foner, Is Islam in Western Europe like Race in the United States?

17. Tao Xu, Economic and Cultural Threats and Chinese Residents’ Attitudes Toward Foreigners in Yiwu, China

18. Alena Kluknavská / Manuela Caiani, Populist Radical Right and Immigrants in Times of Crisis: The Case of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

19. Chia-Ling Yang, Experiencing and Practicing Racism in Sweden: Chinese Migrants at the Crossroads

Chapter ΙV – Media Discourse on Migration and the Coverage of the “Migrant and Refugee Crisis”

20. Jussi P. Laine, Media Sensationalism and the Production of the Crisis: Exploring the Normative Terrain of Migration Journalism

21. Alina Rzepnikowska, Polish Migrants in Britain and Spain: The Media and Political Discourses

22. Jeffrey Jurgens, The Affective Work of “Crisis”: Pluralism, Citizenship, and Racialization in Germany

Chapter V – Access to Education

23. Stephanie Bengtsson, But Some are More Equal than Others: Understanding the Global Education Response for Refugees and Migrants

24. Ourania Miliou / Charalambos Vrasidas, Supporting Migrant Integration with Digital Technologies: Case Studies from Cyprus

Chapter VI – Housing, Welfare, Gender and Family

25. Daniele Karasz, “That’s Us, the Foreigners, Who Else?” – The Non-definition of Migrants in a Developer’s Competition for “Intercultural” Housing Estates and the Consequences for Housing Allocations

26. Eva Anna Duda-Mikulin, Access to Social Welfare as a Facilitator of Migrant Women’s Gender Roles

27. Katerina Vassilikou, Family Mobility, Migrant Networks and Domestic Work in Times of Recession

Chapter VII – Health Care and Mental Health Support

28. Nathalie Simonnot / Pierre Chauvin, Migrants Seen by Doctors of the World across Europe: A Mix of Legal Residents, Undocumented Immigrants and Migrants in Transit who Share Common Harsh Living Conditions and Barriers in Accessing Health Care

29. Maria Psoinos / Elisabeth Ioannidis / Dimitris Papamichail / George Koulierakis, Effective Synergies between Civil Society and Public Sector: The Case of Healthcare for Migrants and Refugees in Greece

30. Eleni Hatzidimitriadou, Mental Health, Trauma and Wellbeing of Forced and Other Migrants: Effective Responses at Times of Crisis

31. Theodoros Fouskas / Charalampos Economou / Joana Vassilopoulou / Despina Papadopoulou / Gerassimos Karabelias / Kyriakos Souliotis / Athanassios Vozikis / Symeon Sidiropoulos / Konstantinos Kazanas, A Tale of Two Crises: Reception Policy and Covid-19 Management regarding Migrants, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Greece